Solar Photovoltaic Glass --- Make Buildings Into Batteries
Photovoltaic glass is the upstream raw material of photovoltaic modules. Its strength and light transmittance directly determine the life of photovoltaic modules and power generation efficiency. It is an essential material for the production of crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules. With the rise of dual glass modules in the future, the performance requirements for photovoltaic glass will be higher.
What is photovoltaic glass?
Photovoltaic glass is ultra-white glass, also known as colorless glass, high-transparent glass, and subway glass. It has high light transmittance and high transparency.it is crystal clear and enjoys a reputation of the glass family -Crystal Prince. The light transmittance determines the quality of the glass. The light transmittance of the float glass is 86%, while the light transmittance of the ultra-white glass can reach more than 92%. Ultra-white glass has high technology content, difficult production and strong profitability.
The photovoltaic glass is located in the outermost layer on the front of the module. In outdoor environment, it directly receives sunlight. On the one hand, it uses its high transmittance to provide light energy to the cell, on the other hand, it uses its good physical properties to provide mechanical properties for the solar cell module, and to protect the module from water vapor, block oxygen and prevent oxidation. It is resistant to high and low temperatures, and has good insulation and aging and corrosion resistance.
Solar photovoltaic glass is a kind of silicate glass with low iron content. It is composed of low-iron glass, solar cells, films, back glass, and special metal wires. It is a new type of glass product that can convert solar energy into electricity. It is widely used in many fields such as curtain walls, photovoltaic roofs, sunshades, solar power generation systems, etc.
Solar photovoltaic glass curtain wall
Photovoltaic power generation will surely become the main energy used by people in the future, mainly because it is clean and pollution-free, and the energy is unlimited, which is inexhaustible. According to calculations, the total electromagnetic radiation energy obtained by the earth from the sun is 1.74×1017 joules per second. What does this concept mean? The atomic bombs dropped by the United States in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 were 5.5×1013 joules. The energy we obtain from the sun each day is almost equivalent to the energy of 270 million Hiroshima atomic bombs. The energy of solar energy to illuminate the earth in one year exceeds the sum of the energy of all stored energy on Earth.
Although the photovoltaic industry has a bright future, "reducing costs and increasing efficiency" has always been the topic of the photovoltaic industry. After the introduction of the "531" new policy in 2018, "reducing costs and increasing efficiency, and parity on the Internet" have gradually become the consensus of the photovoltaic industry. Therefore, the improvement of the conversion efficiency of photovoltaic modules has ushered in the "efficient era" of module technology. A high-efficiency product with lower unit power generation cost-the PERC double-sided double-glass module came into being.
What is a double-sided double-glass module?
As the name implies, double-sided and double-glass modules are glass modules that can generate electricity on both sides. When sunlight hits the module, part of the light will be reflected by the surrounding environment to the back of the double-sided module and absorbed by the battery, thus making a certain contribution to the photocurrent and efficiency of the battery.
double-sided double-glass module
Will double-sided glass become the mainstream of technological development?
(1) Increased power generation: With the additional power generation on the back, the power generation will increase by 10% to 30% compared to single-sided power generation components.
(2) High reliability: the module has a high fireproof rating, low long-term attenuation, resistance to water vapor, and resistance corrosion, fire prevention, sand prevention, and abrasion resistance.
(3) Long life: Like single-sided double-glass components, the warranty is 30 years or even 40 years, and ordinary components are 20 years.
(4) Low cost: The advantage of double-glass double-sided modules is that the power generation efficiency is significantly improved without increasing costs. The current mainstream p-PERC batteries, as well as the larger potential N-type single crystal and HIT batteries, are naturally compatible with double-sided battery technology without incurring additional costs. In the component link, the dual glass module also has a cost advantage in the packaging link. The frameless dual glass module is 0.187 yuan cheaper per watt than the single glass module.
(5) Policy level: In June 2019, as determined by the Federal trade authorities, double-sided solar modules will no longer be subject to Section 201. The export cost of solar module products will no longer need to pay 25%. Reduced export costs and lower prices are conducive to stimulating demand and penetration in overseas markets.
How about growth and certainty?
The dual-glass module penetration rates from 2016 to 2019 are 3.9%, 6.6%, 12%, and 20%, respectively, and it is expected to reach 30-40% by 2020. If only single-sided glass is replaced with double-sided glass, it will drive 60% growth of photovoltaic glass. Coupled with the growth of the photovoltaic industry itself, there will be faster growth. Double glass modules require double-area photovoltaic glass, and its large-scale application will significantly increase the demand for photovoltaic glass. As the penetration rate of dual-glass modules continues to increase, even considering that the increase in module power has a negative impact on the demand for photovoltaic glass, the growth in demand for photovoltaic glass in the next few years will exceed the growth rate of new installations.
According to public information, the industry mainly requires quality, not price, for photovoltaic glass. The quality of photovoltaic glass has a great influence on the power of the module. For every 1% increase in solar transmittance, the power generation of photovoltaic cell modules can increase by about 0.8%. Therefore, the industry has always required high quality of photovoltaic glass.
What is its industry structure?
The competition pattern of the photovoltaic glass industry is clear and stable. At present, it is a duopoly. Leading companies in the industry, such as Xinyi Solar and Fleet Glass, have large scales and obvious cost advantages. At the same time, they are able to widen the differences in production capacity and costs with second-tier companies through continued expansion. At present, mainstream photovoltaic glass companies have been in the industry for many years, and there are almost no new entrants. According to the current expansion plans of various enterprises, it is expected that the total market share of the two leading companies will exceed 60% within two years.
The barriers to entry for the photovoltaic glass industry are high and there are fewer new entrants. The photovoltaic glass industry has strong barriers to entry in terms of technology, certification, customers, scale, and layout. At the same time, ordinary glass production lines cannot be easily converted into photovoltaic glass production lines. Whether it is a company outside the glass industry or an ordinary glass production enterprise, to enter the photovoltaic glass market, it must cross a high industry threshold.